Inverted Nipples, who gets them and are they hereditary Aurora Clinics
Who gets inverted nipples Well, anyone can get inverted nipples. One in ten percent of the population, and this includes men, have inverted nipples to some degree. There's no rhyme or reason why you may have them, but they do often run in families. So often we'll find some of our patients will say that their mother, father, or other members of their family had inverted nipples. So it's a bit like prominent ears, which again run in families. So the appearance of your bust will tend to resemble that of other family.
Members. So inverted nipples do tend to run in families. We've had a number of mothers who've had inverted nipple correction, who've mentioned that their daughters have got inverted nipples, and they've seen it in the bath when washing them. They're very aware that this may become an issue for them slightly later in life. So anyone can get inverted nipples. One in ten percent of the population, both men and women, have it, and there's no reason why you should have it, but it does tend to run in families. If you would like more information.
Should I Get Tested for More than Just BRCA1 BRCA2
We are at the point now where it took us 18 years to fully understand BRCA1 and BRCA2. BRCA1 was discovered in 1994 and BRCA2 in 1996 and over the years, there has been 20 other genes that have been implicated in breast, ovarian, and other cancers and I can rattle them off, but for simplicity sake, there are all of family of genes that all work together to accomplish one goal and that is to protect our DNA, so BRCA1 and BRCA2 are like the quarter back and the running back, but there are other players that interact with them that are important.
And if they are damaged or missing, then the BRCA1 and BRCA2 cannot perform their functions, so we are now learning that BRCA1 and BRCA2 is just the tip of the iceberg. There is a whole family of other genes that are out there that may not be as powerful, may be not be as serious, but they can still cause cancers. They are still important to know about and if you only test for BRCA1 and BRCA2, you are going to miss out on them. For an instance, ovarian cancer 75 of the mutations in ovarian cancer, 25 of all ovarian cancer patients.
Are genetically driven, all of those 25, 75 of those are BRCA1 and BRCA2, but the other 25 are the nonBRCA genes, so if you just test an ovarian patient for BRCA1 and BRCA2, you are going to miss out on 25 of the other potential genes that may be damaged, so its opening up the windows in the world to genetics in a broader way. There is 20,000 genes are in our body, so there is finite number of genes, so we started with 2 around 20 now. There may be 200 cancer related genes, so as the years go on, we are going to discover.
More and more genes, but this is not going to be infinite number and genetic counselors in 5 or 10 years, we are going to go to Walgreens and stick your finger in the machine and when you done shopping, you are going to get a print out or a USB drive with your whole genome sequence. It's exciting we are getting there. There is so much more to learn, but really BRCA1 and BRCA2 is important, but the world is so much bigger than just BRCA1 and BRCA2 and so I think the lesson is that a healthcare provider that knows that there is more out.
Inverted Nipples, what causes them Aurora Clinics
What causes inverted nipples Well, the essential change is that the milk ducts, which are the tubes which connect the breast tissue to the nipple, are too short. So this tends to pull the nipple inwards, and there are lots of different patterns of inverted nipples, which you can see by visiting our website. So lots of before and afters and different variations. You can see the website by clicking on the link below. So essentially, the ducts are too short, and the muscle in the nipple isn't strong enough, when stimulated.
By cold or touch, to pull the nipple outwards. So if you have inverted nipples, they normally occur in puberty, when the breasts start to grow, and at that stage the tight ducts become apparent because they pull the nipple inwards. One note of caution is if you do have inverted nipples that have come on suddenly, within weeks or months, it's very important to see your GP, because sudden onset of inverted nipples can be a sign of pathology or something going on within your breast tissue. But the most common type of inverted nipples are caused.
Familial Hypercholesterolemia A Stanford Patient Story
It started a long time ago. I was 15 when my father passed away at age ' from a heart attack due to cholesterol. And once that happened, the family doctor said, Everyone now needs to be tested for cholesterol. This is very severe. And it was determined that three of us in the family had very high cholesterol. So, at that time, I did go on medicine. And then, after a while, I didn't want to do this because I was fighting it. I really just like, Well, I don't see it. I don't feel it. I'm.
Okay. So, prior to turning ', I discovered a bump on my elbow, and I went to the dermatologist, and it was, We've got to take this out. So, they took it out. Did the lab test, came back, met with the doctor, and he said, This is calcified cholesterol, and if it's here, it's everywhere. This is very serious. I'm going to refer you to Stanford. And of course my heart was pounding. FH is also called familial hypercholesterolemia and it is a condition that results from the body's inability to clear high cholesterol.
From the blood. This results in startlingly high cholesterol levels. In an adult an LDL greater than 190 makes us suspicious that that person may have familial hypercholesterolemia. In Brenda's case, her LDL, I believe, was in the 300 or 400's, so it was quite excessive. The key about FH is that you have high cholesterol from the time you're born. So, over the course of a life your blood vessels are exposed to very high levels of cholesterol. And his very high cholesterol level is like a poison to the blood vessels that results.
In, huge accumulation of fatty deposits and cholesterol deposits in the arteries that feed the heart and it leads to a much, much greater risk of heart attack or stroke. I remember distinctly the first time coming over to Stanford. Mary Ann Champagne was the first person I met. She just said I I'm so pleased to meet you, and I'm so glad that you're here. And, I told her, I am afraid. So, how can we work together so that I'll keep coming back Because, I think, the cholesterol numbers were so high that when the doctors would see that, they'd be like, Oh my goodness,.
We better give you this, and we better give you this, and we have to give you this, and then I would feel so awful from it, I just it didn't make me feel good. So, she said, We're going to start over. We're going to take it slow. We're going to have you take a medicine. We're going to adjust and have you get used to it. And if we need to, we're going to add another one. People with FH, although lifestyle is important, medications are essential, and so they need to stay engaged. And we try very hard to keep.
People engaged by making them partners, in their whole treatment plan. I take three different kinds of medicine every night before I go to bed, and they work in different areas based on what my numbers are when I have my blood draw. So, the results come, they look at it, they determine what needs to be added or changed. A lot of it is related towards your diet andor lack of exercise. So, I started walking. And, last summer, I was going five miles a day. I have recently lost quite a bit of weight.
Bunion Removal Foot Surgery PreOp Patient Engagement and Education
Your doctor has recommended that you undergo surgery to remove a bunion. But what does that actually mean A bunion is caused when the metatarsal bone in the big toe gradually shifts towards the second toe. This shift causes a bump at the inside of the big toe's first joint. As a bunion grows, it can lead to other painful foot problems, including hammertoes, calluses on the bottom of the foot and arch pain. Bunions are largely hereditary, but they can effect anyone. Even a small instability in the bones of the big toe can trigger the growth of a bunion.
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